• Reid, MD, Muraki, T, Hookim, K, Memis, B, Graham, R, Allende, D, Shi, J, Schaeffer, D, Singh, R, Basturk, O, Adsay, V. Cytologic features and clinical implications of undifferentiated carcinoma with osteoclastic giant cells of the pancreas: an analysis of 15 cases. Cancer Cytopathology. 2017; doi:10.1002/cncy.21859.
  • Rosai J. Carcinoma of pancreas simulating giant cell tumor of bone. Electron-microscopic evidence of its acinar cell origin. Cancer. 1968;22:333-344.
  • Baniel J, Konichezky M, Wolloch Y. Osteoclast-type giant cell tumor of the pancreas. Case report. Acta Chir Scand. 1987;153:67- 69.
  • Muraki T, Reid MD, Basturk O, et al. Undifferentiated carcinoma with osteoclastic giant cells of the pancreas: clinicopathologic analysis of 38 cases highlights a more protracted clinical course than currently appreciated. Am J Surg Pathol. 2016;40:1203-1216.
  • Westra WH, Sturm P, Drillenburg P, et al. K-ras oncogene mutations in osteoclast-like giant cell tumors of the pancreas and liver: genetic evidence to support origin from the duct epithelium. Am J Surg Pathol. 1998;22:1247-1254.
  • Reid MD, Balci S, Saka B, Adsay NV. Neuroendocrine tumors of the pancreas: current concepts and controversies. Endocr Pathol. 2014;25:65-79.
  • Silverman JF, Finley JL, Berns L, Unverferth M. Significance of giant cells in fine-needle aspiration biopsies of benign and malignant lesions of the pancreas. Diagn Cytopathol. 1989;5:388-391.
  • Olson MT, Wakely PE Jr, Ali SZ. Metastases to the pancreas diagnosed by fine-needle aspiration. Acta Cytol. 2013;57:473-480.